Monday, October 31, 2011
A classic Ph.D. generally has a hypothesis that is formulated at an early stage (say, year two) and the dissertation describes 3-4 years of research that tests that hypothesis.
A modern Ph.D. (at least in computer architecture) rarely follows this classic recipe. There are many reasons to adapt your research focus every year: (1) After each project (paper), you realize the capabilities and limitations of your ideas; that wisdom will often steer you in a different direction for your next project. (2) Each project fixes some bottleneck and opens up other new bottlenecks that deserve attention. (3) Once an initial idea has targeted the low-hanging fruit, incremental extensions to that idea are often unattractive to top program committees. (4) If your initial thesis topic is no longer "hot", you may have to change direction to be better prepared for the upcoming job hunt. (5) New technologies emerge every few years that change the playing field.
I'll use my own Ph.D. as an example. My first project was on an adaptive cache structure. After that effort, I felt that long latencies could not be avoided; perhaps latency tolerance would have more impact than latency reduction. That led to my second effort, designing a runahead thread that could jump ahead and correctly prefetch data. The wisdom I gathered from that project was that it was essential to have many registers so the processor could look far enough into the future. If you had enough registers, you wouldn't need fancy runahead; hence, my third project was a design of a large two-level register file. During that project, I realized that "clustering" was an effective way to support large processor structures at high clock speeds. For my fourth project, I designed mechanisms to dynamically allocate cluster resources to threads. So I had papers on caching, runahead threads, register file design, and clustering. It was obviously difficult to weave them together into a coherent dissertation. In fact, each project used very different simulators and workloads. But I picked up skills in a variety of topics. I learnt how to pick problems and encountered a diverse set of literature, challenges, and reviews. By switching topics, I don't think I compromised on "depth"; I was using insight from one project to influence my approach in the next. I felt I graduated with a deep understanding of how to both reduce and tolerate long latencies in a processor.
My key point is this: it is better to be adaptive and focus on high-impact topics than to flog a dead horse for the sake of a coherent dissertation. Research is unpredictable and a four-year research agenda can often not be captured by a single hypothesis in year two. The dissertation is therefore a contrived concept (or at least appears contrived today given that the nature of research has evolved with time). The dissertation is a poor proxy when evaluating a student's readiness to graduate. The student's ability to tie papers into a neat package tells me nothing about his/her research skills. If a Ph.D. is conferred on someone that has depth/wisdom in a topic and is capable of performing independent research, a student's publication record is a better metric in the evaluation process.
In every thesis proposal and defense I attend, there is a prolonged discussion on what constitutes a coherent thesis. Students are steered in a direction that leads to a coherent thesis, not necessarily in a direction of high impact. If one works in a field where citation counts for papers far out-number citation counts for dissertations, I see little value in producing a polished dissertation that will never be read. Use that time to instead produce another high-quality paper!
There are exceptions, of course. One in every fifty dissertations has "bible" value... it ends up being the authoritative document on some topic and helps brand the student as the leading expert in that area. For example, see Ron Ho's dissertation on wires. If your Ph.D. work naturally lends itself to bible creation and you expect to be an ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award nominee, by all means, spend a few months to distill your insight into a coherent dissertation that will have high impact. Else, staple your papers into a dissertation, and don't be ashamed about it!
My short wish-list: (1) A thesis committee should focus on whether a student has produced sufficient high-quality peer-reviewed work and not worry about dissertation coherence. (2) A dissertation can be as simple as a collection of the candidate's papers along with an introductory chapter that conveys the conclusions and insights that guided the choice of problems.
Wednesday, October 5, 2011
One Sunday morning, January 6th, 2008 I was attending religious services when my cell phone vibrated. As discreetly as possible, I checked the phone and noticed that my phone said "Caller ID unknown". I choose to ignore.
After services, as I was walking to my car with my family, I checked my cell phone messages. The message left was from Steve Jobs. "Vic, can you call me at home? I have something urgent to discuss" it said.
Before I even reached my car, I called Steve Jobs back. I was responsible for all mobile applications at Google, and in that role, had regular dealings with Steve. It was one of the perks of the job.
"Hey Steve - this is Vic", I said. "I'm sorry I didn't answer your call earlier. I was in religious services, and the caller ID said unknown, so I didn't pick up".
Steve laughed. He said, "Vic, unless the Caller ID said 'GOD', you should never pick up during services".
I laughed nervously. After all, while it was customary for Steve to call during the week upset about something, it was unusual for him to call me on Sunday and ask me to call his home. I wondered what was so important?
"So Vic, we have an urgent issue, one that I need addressed right away. I've already assigned someone from my team to help you, and I hope you can fix this tomorrow" said Steve.
"I've been looking at the Google logo on the iPhone and I'm not happy with the icon. The second O in Google doesn't have the right yellow gradient. It's just wrong and I'm going to have Greg fix it tomorrow. Is that okay with you?"
Of course this was okay with me. A few minutes later on that Sunday I received an email from Steve with the subject "Icon Ambulance". The email directed me to work with Greg Christie to fix the icon.
Since I was 11 years old and fell in love with an Apple II, I have dozens of stories to tell about Apple products. They have been a part of my life for decades. Even when I worked for 15 years for Bill Gates at Microsoft, I had a huge admiration for Steve and what Apple had produced.
But in the end, when I think about leadership, passion and attention to detail, I think back to the call I received from Steve Jobs on a Sunday morning in January. It was a lesson I'll never forget. CEOs should care about details. Even shades of yellow. On a Sunday.
If there's one thing to learn from Steve Jobs' life, it is the importance of being a perfectionist. All the time. Right down to the perfect shade of yellow. Respect, Mr. Jobs.
Tuesday, October 4, 2011
I know, it’s been a little over a month since this year’s edition of the conference concluded, but better late than never! It was my first ever trip to HotChips, and I thought I should share some things I found interesting. I’ll keep away from regurgitating stuff from the technical talks since the tech-press has likely covered all of those in sufficient detail.
1. This is clearly an industry-oriented conference. There were hardly any professors around, and very few grad students. As a result, perhaps, there was almost nobody hanging out in the hallways or break areas during the actual talks, people were actually inside the auditorium!
2. It seemed like the entire architecture/circuits community from every tech shop in the Bay Area was in attendance. If you’re going to be on the job market soon, it’s a great place to network!
3. I enjoyed the keynote talk from ARM. It was interesting to think about smartphones (with ARM chips inside, of course) in the context of the developing world -- at price points in the $100-200 range, they are not a supplementary device like in the US, but the main conduit for people who normally couldn’t afford a $600 laptop to get on the internet. Definitely sounds like there’s huge potential for this form factor going forward.
Another interesting tidbit from this talk was a comparison between the energy densities of a typical smartphone battery and a bar of chocolate -- 4.5 kCal in 30g vs. 255 kCal in 49g! Lot of work to do to improve battery technology, obviously.
4. While on the subject of ARM, comparisons to Intel and discussions on who was “winning” were everywhere, from the panel discussion in the evening to one of the pre-defined “lunch table discussion topics”. Needless to say, there was nothing conclusive one way or the other :)
5. I finally got to touch a real, working prototype of Micron’s Hybrid Memory Cube (see Rajeev’s post here). I know, it’s of little practical value to see the die-stack, but it was cool nonetheless :) The talk was pretty interesting too, the first to release some technical information I think. It appears to be a complete rethinking of DRAM, with a novel protocol, novel interconnect topologies, etc.
6. I also really enjoyed the talk from the Kinect folks. I’ve seen it in action, and it was amazing to understand the complex design behind making everything work, especially since a lot of the challenges were outside my typical areas of interest -- mechanical design, aesthetics, reliability, processing images with low lighting, varying clothes, people of different sizes.. fascinating! There was also an aspect of “approachability” in the talk that I think is becoming increasingly common in the tech world -- basically *hide* the technology from the end user, making everything work “magically”. This makes people more likely to actually try these things. As a technologist, I understand the logic, but am not sure I like it very much -- engineers spend countless hours fixing a million corner cases, and I think there should be some way the common public understands at least the severity of these complexities and appreciates how hard it is to make things work! It’s like the common saying that Moore’s “Law” gives you increasing number of transistors every year -- it doesn’t, engineers do!
7. Finally, one really awesome event was a robot on stage! It was introduced by the folks from Willow Garage -- controlled from a simple Android app. It moved to the center of the stage from the wings, gave the speaker a high-five, and showed off a few tricks. There were also videos in the talk of it playing pool, bringing beer from a fridge (brand of your choice!), and a bunch of other cool things. Very fancy :) Waiting for my own personal assistant!